The library contains publications providing information on recent and emerging virtual reality technologies and their application in rehabilitation. Details can be found on authors, research, technology, area of impact as well as location.

VR4REHAB is providing this library as a service for all stakeholders in rehabilitation to showcase past, current and future work with neither assessment of quality of content nor evaluation of claims made by the original authors.  Therefore, reference to any work or products in the library does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation by VR4REHAB.

Clinical Trial of the Virtual Integration Environment to Treat Phantom Limb Pain With Upper Extremity Amputation
Briana N. Perry, Robert S. Armiger, Mikias Wolde, Kayla A. McFarland, Aimee L. Alphonso, Brett T. Monson, Paul F. Pasquina and Jack W. Tsao

"We explored whether the Virtual Integration Environment (VIE), a virtual reality UE simulator, could be used as a therapy device to effectively treat PLP in individuals with UE amputation."

DOI: https://10.3389/fneur.2018.00770
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VR and AR in human performance research - An NUS experience
Jun-Hao Yin, Chin-Boon Chng, Pooi-Mun Wong, Nicholas Ho, Matthew Chua, Chee-Kong Chui

"This paper surveys current research trends, findings and limitation of VR and AR in its effect on human performance, specifically in Singapore, and our experience in the National University of Singapore (NUS)."

DOI: https://10.2196/12771
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Is Wearable Technology Becoming Part of Us? Developing and Validating a Measurement Scale for Wearable Technology Embodiment
Elizabeth C Nelson, Tibert Verhagen, Miriam Vollenbroek-Hutten, Matthijs L Noordzij

"This study aimed to conceptualize wearable technology embodiment, create an instrument to measure it, and test the predictive validity of the scale using well-known constructs related to technology adoption."

DOI: https://10.2196/12771
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Effects of mixed reality head-mounted glasses during 90 minutes of mental and manual tasks on cognitive and physiological functions
Carole Cometti, Christos Païzis, Audrey Casteleira, Guillaume Pons, Nicolas Babault​

"We evaluated the effects of a mixed reality (MR) head-mounted device on some cognitive and physiological functions during 90 min tasks in an attempt to determine their safety for workers."

DOI: https://10.7717/peerj.5847
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Depth Camera-Based 3D Hand Gesture Controls with Immersive Tactile Feedback for Natural Mid-Air Gesture Interactions
Kwangtaek Kim, Joongrock Kim, Jaesung Choi, Junghyun Kim and Sangyoun Lee

"Our study provides researchers and designers with informative guidelines to develop more natural gesture control systems or immersive user interfaces with haptic feedback."

DOI: https://10.3390/s150101022
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Use of Perturbation-Based Gait Training in a Virtual Environment to Address Mediolateral Instability in an Individual With Unilateral Transfemoral Amputation
Riley C. Sheehan, Christopher A. Rábago, Jonathan H. Rylander, Jonathan B. Dingwell, Jason M. Wilken

"This case report describes walking function and mediolateral stability outcomes of an individual with a unilateral transfemoral amputation following a novel perturbation-based gait training intervention in a virtual environment."

DOI: https://10.2522/ptj.20150566
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Seeing virtual while acting real: Visual display and strategy effects on the time and precision of eye-hand coordination
Anil U. Batmaz, Michel de Mathelin, Birgitta Dresp-Langley

"Effects of different visual displays on the time and precision of bare-handed or tool-mediated eye-hand coordination were investigated in a pick-and-place-task with complete novices."

DOI: https://10.1371/journal.pone.0183789
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Interactive sensor-based balance training in older cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: a randomized controlled trial
Schwenk M., Grewal G.S., Holloway D., Muchna A., Garland L., Najafi B.

"This pilot study investigated the effect of an interactive motor adaptation balance training program based on wearable sensors for improving balance in older cancer patients with CIPN."

DOI: https://10.1159/000442253
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Reinforced Feedback in Virtual Environment for Plantar Flexor Poststroke Spasticity Reduction and Gait Function Improvement
Carlos Luque-Moreno, Fátima Cano-Bravo, Pawel Kiper, Ignacio Solís-Marcos, Jose A. Moral-Munoz, Michela Agostini, Ángel Oliva-Pascual-Vaca and Andrea Turolla

"Our aim was to determine if there was decreased spasticity in the ankle plantar flex (PF) muscles in the plegic lower extremity (LE) and improvement of gait function in stroke patients after traditional rehabilitation (TR) in combination with virtual reality with reinforced feedback, which is termed “reinforced feedback virtual environment” (RFVE)."

DOI: https://10.1155/2019/6295263
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Augmented feedback for powered wheelchair training in a virtual environment
Catherine Bigras, Dahlia Kairy & Philippe S. Archambault

"The purpose of this study was to investigate whether providing augmented feedback during powered wheelchair simulator training results in superior performance, and whether skills learned in a virtual environment transfer to real PW driving."

DOI: https://10.1186/s12984-019-0482-3
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Upper limb muscle activation during sports video gaming of persons with spinal cord injury
Jeffrey P Jaramillo, M Elise Johanson, B Jenny Kiratli

"Video gaming as a therapeutic tool has largely been studied within the stroke population with some benefits reported in upper limb motor performance, balance, coordination, and cardiovascular status. To date, muscle activation of upper limb muscles in persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) has not been studied during video game play."

DOI: https://10.1080/10790268.2018.1452391
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An ecological measure to screen executive functioning in MS: the Picture Interpretation Test (PIT) 360°
Olivia Realdon, Silvia Serino, Federica Savazzi, Federica Rossetto, Pietro Cipresso, Thomas D. Parsons, Giacomo Cappellini, Fabrizia Mantovani, Laura Mendozzi, Raffaello Nemni, Giuseppe Riva & Francesca Baglio

"Executive functions are crucial for performance of everyday activities. In Multiple Sclerosis (MS), executive dysfunctions can be apparent from the early onset of the disease. Technology-based time-efficient and resource-saving tools for early evaluation of executive functions using an ecological approach are needed to assess functional performance in real-life."

DOI: https://10.1038/s41598-019-42201-1
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Watch what I do, not what I say I do: Computer-based avatars to assess behavioral inhibition, a vulnerability factor for anxiety disorders
Myers C, Kostek, Ekeh, Sanchez, Ebanks-Williams, Krusznis, Weinflash, Servatius

"Behavioral inhibition (BI), a tendency to withdraw from or avoid novel social and non-social situations, is a personality trait which can confer risk for anxiety disorders. However, questionnaires have inherent limitations, particularly in psychiatric populations where there may be unawareness of deficit. A viable alternative may be virtual environments, in which the participant guides an on-screen “avatar” through a series of onscreen events meant to simulate real-world situations.."

DOI: https://10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.067
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Virtual Sensorimotor Balance Training for Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Feasibility Study
Sarah Westcott McCoy, Tracy Jirikowic, Robert Price, Marcia A. Ciol, Lin-Ya Hsu, Brian Dellon, Deborah Kartin

"Diminished sensory adaptation has been associated with poor balance control for children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). A virtual reality system, Sensorimotor Training to Affect Balance, Engagement and Learning (STABEL), was developed to train sensory control for balance."

DOI: https://10.2522/ptj.20150124
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Gait Pattern and Motor Performance During Discrete Gait Perturbation in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders
Emilia Biffi, Cristina Costantini, Silvia Busti Ceccarelli, Ambra Cesareo, Gian Marco Marzocchi, Maria Nobile, Massimo Molteni and Alessandro Crippa

"Quantitative evaluation of gait has been considered a useful tool with which to identify subtle signs of motor system peculiarities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is a paucity of studies reporting gait data in ASD as well as investigating learning processes of locomotor activity. Novel advanced technologies that couple treadmills with virtual reality environments and motion capture systems allows the evaluation of gait patterns on multiple steps and the effects of induced gait perturbations, as well as the ability to manipulate visual and proprioceptive feedbacks."

DOI: https://10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02530
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An Altered Spatiotemporal Gait Adjustment during a Virtual Obstacle Crossing Task in Patients with Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
Chun-Kai Huang, Vijay Shivaswamy, Pariwat Thaisetthawatkul, Lynn Mack, Nicholas Stergiou, Ka-Chun Siu

"This study investigates spatiotemporal gait adjustments that occur while stepping over virtual obstacles during treadmill walking in people with/without diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN)."

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Sensorimotor conflict tests in an immersive virtual environment reveal subclinical impairments in mild traumatic brain injury
Hrishikesh M. Rao, Tanya Talkar, Gregory Ciccarelli, Michael Nolan, Anne O’Brien, Gloria Vergara-Diaz, Delsey Sherrill, Ross Zafonte, Jeffrey S. Palmer, Thomas F. Quatieri, Ryan J. McKindles, Paolo Bonato & Adam C. Lammert

"Our central hypothesis was that provocative sensorimotor perturbations, delivered in a highly instrumented, immersive virtual environment, would challenge sensory subsystems recruited for balance through conflicting multi-sensory evidence, and therefore reveal that not all subsystems are performing optimally."

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Serious games may improve physician heuristics in trauma triage
Deepika Mohan, Baruch Fischhoff, Derek C. Angus, Matthew R. Rosengart, David J. Wallace, Donald M. Yealy, Coreen Farris, Chung-Chou H. Chang, Samantha Kerti, and Amber E. Barnato

"Trauma triage depends on fallible human judgment. We created two “serious” video game training interventions to improve that judgment. The interventions’ central theoretical construct was the representativeness heuristic, which, in trauma triage, would mean judging the severity of an injury by how well it captures (or “represents”) the key features of archetypes of cases requiring transfer to a trauma center."

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