The library contains publications providing information on recent and emerging virtual reality technologies and their application in rehabilitation. Details can be found on authors, research, technology, area of impact as well as location.

VR4REHAB is providing this library as a service for all stakeholders in rehabilitation to showcase past, current and future work with neither assessment of quality of content nor evaluation of claims made by the original authors.  Therefore, reference to any work or products in the library does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation by VR4REHAB.

Rehabilitation via home based gaming exercise for the upper-limb post stroke (RHOMBUS): qualitative findings of an intervention feasibility trial
Cherry Kilbride, Alex Nowicky, Alyson Warland, Thomas Butcher, Meriel Norris, Guillem Buxarrais Singla, Daniel Scott, Karen Baker, Dimitris Athanasiou, Nana Anoyke, Jennifer Ryan, Elizabeth Cassidy

"Poor arm recovery post-stroke can lead to increased dependence, reduced quality of life, and is a strong predictor of lower psychological wellbeing following stroke. Effective treatment interventions are characterised by repetitive practice. "

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OneHAND project, VR hand prosthesis training
Eric Jutten, Beth Sheehan, Ole Olsen

"People worldwide are currently in need of prostheses solutions to replace upper limbs due to genetic
malformation, war related trauma or occupational accidents. For upper limb amputees, a prosthetic hand is
one option for a , productive, independent life and enables participation in education, the labour market
and social life. "

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Project idea: VRforLOWBACKPAIN
L.Beijer, Maikel Trommelen, Bart Kral, Niki Stolwijk, Wienand Remkes, Vincent Bastiaans, Marjo Maas, Sebastiaan van Pinxteren, Eric Jutten, Marijn Huijbregts

"Globally, low back pain (LBP) is a common symptom across all age groups. Years lived with disability
caused by LBP increased by 54% between 1990 and 2015, due to a growing and ageing population1,2
Annually, 2000 patients with LBP are referred to the Sint Maartenskliniek near Nijmegen, a hospital
specialized in care for posture and movement."

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Effect of virtual reality gait training on participation in survivors of subacute stroke: a randomized controlled trial
IJM de Rooij1, IGL van de Port, M Punt, PJM Abbink-van Moorsel, M Kortsmit, RPA van Eijk, JMA Visser-Meily, JWG Meijer

"After stroke, people often experience difficulties with walking leading to restrictions in participation in daily life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of virtual reality gait training (VRT) compared to non-virtual reality gait training (non-VRT) on participation in community-living people after stroke."

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Virtual Reality Rehabilitation in long COVID patients; a pilot effectiveness study
R.J. Achttien PT, PhD1, M.L.M. Smits MSc2, J.B. Staal PT, PhD1,3, T. Groenveld, H. van Goor, MD, PhD, FRCS2 and the VREHAB group

"Post-COVID-19 patients, including those not admitted to hospital, are expected to have high needs for physical, psychological, and cognitive rehabilitation (long COVID) [1]. Resources needed to provide rehabilitation treatment are expected to be inadequate [2].."

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PijnVRij: A qualitative study into the lived experiences of patients with non-specific chronic low-back pain using Virtual Reality
Merlijn Smits, Harry van Goor

"21,2% of the Dutch population is suffering from chronic low-back pain. Chronic pain often negatively affects quality of life, mobility, and activities of daily living of these patients. Current chronic pain treatment, mostly via NSAIDs, is often inadequate [1]."

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The Impact of Virtual Reality on Body Sway and Balance
G. Hakvoort1 , L. Bulle1 , M. Nijenhuis1 , D. Wentink , J. Kosse , S. Brink , E. Nibbering , C. Kniknie , M. Hettinga

"The introduction of consumer-grade virtual reality (VR) headsets has led to new and engaging methods
for physical rehabilitation. Not only does VR provide the means to bring everyday situations into the
rehabilitation therapy, and thereby help their transition into rehabilitation throughout everyday life
after therapy, it also allows patients to practise independent from time and place."

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Child- and task-specific influences on motor learning and transfer in a motorically-equivalent immersive, non-immersive and physical environment
Minxin Cheng, Danielle Levac

"Virtual reality (VR) is a popular pediatric rehabilitation intervention. However, much remains to be
understood about the impact of child-specific (e.g., motivation, engagement, and cognitive
workload) and task-specific (e.g. immersive vs non-immersive viewing medium) influences on motor
learning and transfer in VR."

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Virtual Reality as a Tool to Promote Wellbeing in the Workplace
Jai Shree Adhyaru, Charlotte Kemp

"NHS staff are disproportionately impacted by workplace stress, impacting the quality of service delivery and sustainability of this vital healthcare system. "

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Enhance VR: a multisensory approach to cognitive assessment and training
Victòria Brugada-Ramentol

"The deterioration of cognitive functioning is present in healthy aging and it is more pronounced as a
result of neuropathological conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease [1]. Together with lifestyle
interventions, cognitive training systems have been proposed to delay cognitive decline in older
adults [2]. "

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Device use during teletherapy sessions for children with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic: Parent perspectives
Danielle E. Levac , Cydney Greenberg , Kayla Pinzur , Erica Richard , Kristen Allison

"The first 90 days of the COVID-19 pandemic (March – June 2020) caused widespread therapy service
disruptions for children with disabilities and their families. Many services switched to a telehealth
delivery model. Little is known about how therapists and families used devices (such as smartphones,
computers, active video games, tablets, and virtual reality headsets) for therapy purposes during this
time. "

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Making of a Mixed Reality e-learning module for patients with spinal cord injuries
Katie Hoolahan

"The human body is complex to understand, imagine the challenge for patients with spinal cord injury to understand the consequences of the injury to their bodies. Effective counselling is essential for long-term healt"

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A preliminary investigation into the effects of gamified virtual reality on exercise adherence, perceived exertion and health
Katie Hoolahan

"Exercise is widely used as a treatment and prevention method for many health conditions, however adherence to exercise programmes is generally very low. Gamified virtual reality is a promising solution to this."

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Usability of Three-dimensional Augmented Visual Cues Delivered by Smart Glasses on (Freezing of) Gait in Parkinson's Disease
Sabine Janssen, Benjamin Bolte, Jorik Nonnekes, Marian Bittner, Bastiaan R. Bloem, Tjitske Heida, Yan Zhao, Richard J. A. van Wezel

"We investigate the usability of 3D augmented reality visual cues delivered by smart glasses in comparison to conventional 3D transverse bars on the floor and auditory cueing via a metronome in reducing FOG and improving gait parameters."

DOI: https://10.3389/fneur.2017.00279
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Clinical Trial of the Virtual Integration Environment to Treat Phantom Limb Pain With Upper Extremity Amputation
Briana N. Perry, Robert S. Armiger, Mikias Wolde, Kayla A. McFarland, Aimee L. Alphonso, Brett T. Monson, Paul F. Pasquina and Jack W. Tsao

"We explored whether the Virtual Integration Environment (VIE), a virtual reality UE simulator, could be used as a therapy device to effectively treat PLP in individuals with UE amputation."

DOI: https://10.3389/fneur.2018.00770
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VR and AR in human performance research - An NUS experience
Jun-Hao Yin, Chin-Boon Chng, Pooi-Mun Wong, Nicholas Ho, Matthew Chua, Chee-Kong Chui

"This paper surveys current research trends, findings and limitation of VR and AR in its effect on human performance, specifically in Singapore, and our experience in the National University of Singapore (NUS)."

DOI: https://10.2196/12771
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Is Wearable Technology Becoming Part of Us? Developing and Validating a Measurement Scale for Wearable Technology Embodiment
Elizabeth C Nelson, Tibert Verhagen, Miriam Vollenbroek-Hutten, Matthijs L Noordzij

"This study aimed to conceptualize wearable technology embodiment, create an instrument to measure it, and test the predictive validity of the scale using well-known constructs related to technology adoption."

DOI: https://10.2196/12771
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Effects of mixed reality head-mounted glasses during 90 minutes of mental and manual tasks on cognitive and physiological functions
Carole Cometti, Christos Païzis, Audrey Casteleira, Guillaume Pons, Nicolas Babault​

"We evaluated the effects of a mixed reality (MR) head-mounted device on some cognitive and physiological functions during 90 min tasks in an attempt to determine their safety for workers."

DOI: https://10.7717/peerj.5847
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