The library contains publications providing information on recent and emerging virtual reality technologies and their application in rehabilitation. Details can be found on authors, research, technology, area of impact as well as location.

VR4REHAB is providing this library as a service for all stakeholders in rehabilitation to showcase past, current and future work with neither assessment of quality of content nor evaluation of claims made by the original authors.  Therefore, reference to any work or products in the library does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation by VR4REHAB.

Exploring the effectiveness of immersive Virtual Reality interventions in the management of musculoskeletal pain: a state-of-the-art review
Niamh Brady, ,Joseph G. McVeigh, Karen McCreesh, Ebonie Rio, Thomas Dekkers & Jeremy S. Lewis

Virtual Reality (VR) is an immersive technology, which transports the user to a three-dimensional ‘virtual world’ and is increasingly used as an innovative treatment modality in various aspects of healthcare. The use of immersive VR in the management of musculoskeletal conditions is relatively new and research is required to demonstrate its effectiveness in this field.

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ProCibo: A Virtual Reality Environment for Functional Reach Training
G. Hakvoort , L. Bulle , H. Prins , J. Kosse , S. Brink , E. Nibbering , C. Kniknie , M. Hettinga

"From the moment we set our first steps we practise walking until it eventually becomessecond nature.
However, due to injury, illness, or disease, someone might lose control over this automated task. In
these cases, physical therapy is often used to help restore a patient’s use of muscles and train a new
automatic walking pattern. "

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TrunkyXL: Sixpack for everybody!
Carmen Ensink, Lise Wilders, Kim Vereijken, Desirée Struijk – Vlaswinkel, Fanny Schils, Gert-Jan Brok, Kiki Coppelmans, Colin Rosen, Noël Keijsers

"A significant proportion of stroke patients experience poor trunk control (1), which is highly associated with decreased gait ability and difficulty with activities of daily living (2). Moreover, impaired trunk stability and sitting balance affects the safety of performing daily life activities. Trunk stability is therefore an important goal in functional rehabilitation care (3)."

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Phantom Motor Execution: treating phantom limb pain with virtual and augmented reality
Els M. Keesom, Kajsa Lidstrom-Holmqvist, Liselotte Hermansson, Corry K van der Sluis

"Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a deteriorating condition that can greatly diminish quality of life. A novel treatment has been developed to relieve the PLP. The Phantom Motor Execution (PME) program uses augmented reality to treat PLP."

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Adaptation of a VR therapeutic game for spatial attention to a fMRI environment
Ferdinand Binkofski, André Schüppen

"The aim of our study is the implementation of the virtual reality (VR) therapeutic stimuli from VR-Traveller to a functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) environment with the goal to monitor the effects of therapy in the brains of young patients with cognitive deficits. VR-Traveller is a comprehensive VR therapy program focused on treatment of visual attention and of working memory."

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Virtual Reality Platform for Cognitive Neurorehabilitation: first use cases on Autism and Traumatic Brain Injuries
Agata M. Soccini , Simone A. G. Cuccurullo , Stefania Brighenti , Federica Cena

"In the current work, we present a VR platform for neuro-cognitive studies, using which research
teams and medical staff can implement specific applications for research and practice in several
different rehabilitation use cases."

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Virtual Reality for the Management of Chronic Pain – The VIPA Study
Jordan Tsigarides, Vanessa Grove, Jacqueline Chipping, Susan Miles, Nicholas Shenker, Saber Sami, Alexander Macgregor

"Chronic pain is debilitating, prevalent and one of the most prominent causes of disability worldwide. Current non-pharmacological treatments for pain conditions such as Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) are labour intensive to implement and not widely available, especially during the pandemic."

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VEE+T: Virtual Environment Eyes for Training
F. Cappilli, A.Venanzi

"The Digitalization is leading AECM (Architecture Engineering Construction and Manufacturing) sectors to interact more and more with tools that allow it to autonomously optimize the iterations and design choices: this is perfectly represented also in Training and Simulations sector."

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Motivation for Rehabilitation: User experience of virtual reality innovations for therapy for young people with brain injury
Dido Green, Shana Boltin, Alex Hutchon, Francesca Gowing, Betty Hutchon, Cherry Kilbride, Valentin Beauchamp, Laurent Grisoni

"Intervention programmes for children and young people (CYP) with motor disorders often require extensive repetition of exercises which some CYP find tedious or difficult to adhere to. This study investigated how provision of virtual interfacing access to commercially produced Virtual Reality (VR) games via affordable technologies can provide a motivating enviroment for the practice of therapeutic activities."

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Rehabilitation via home based gaming exercise for the upper-limb post stroke (RHOMBUS): results of an intervention feasibility trial
Cherry Kilbride, Alex Nowicky, Alyson Warland, Thomas Butcher, Meriel Norris, Guillem Buxarrais Singla, Daniel Scott, Karen Baker, Dimitris Athanasiou, Nana Anoyke, Jennifer Ryan, Elizabeth Cassidy

"Effective interventions to promote upper-limb recovery post-stroke are characterised by intensive and repetitive movements. It is reported that stroke survivors move their arm an average of 32 times per therapy session; this is insufficient to drive neuroplastic change."

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Rehabilitation via home based gaming exercise for the upper-limb post stroke (RHOMBUS): qualitative findings of an intervention feasibility trial
Cherry Kilbride, Alex Nowicky, Alyson Warland, Thomas Butcher, Meriel Norris, Guillem Buxarrais Singla, Daniel Scott, Karen Baker, Dimitris Athanasiou, Nana Anoyke, Jennifer Ryan, Elizabeth Cassidy

"Poor arm recovery post-stroke can lead to increased dependence, reduced quality of life, and is a strong predictor of lower psychological wellbeing following stroke. Effective treatment interventions are characterised by repetitive practice. "

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OneHAND project, VR hand prosthesis training
Eric Jutten, Beth Sheehan, Ole Olsen

"People worldwide are currently in need of prostheses solutions to replace upper limbs due to genetic
malformation, war related trauma or occupational accidents. For upper limb amputees, a prosthetic hand is
one option for a , productive, independent life and enables participation in education, the labour market
and social life. "

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Project idea: VRforLOWBACKPAIN
L.Beijer, Maikel Trommelen, Bart Kral, Niki Stolwijk, Wienand Remkes, Vincent Bastiaans, Marjo Maas, Sebastiaan van Pinxteren, Eric Jutten, Marijn Huijbregts

"Globally, low back pain (LBP) is a common symptom across all age groups. Years lived with disability
caused by LBP increased by 54% between 1990 and 2015, due to a growing and ageing population1,2
Annually, 2000 patients with LBP are referred to the Sint Maartenskliniek near Nijmegen, a hospital
specialized in care for posture and movement."

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Effect of virtual reality gait training on participation in survivors of subacute stroke: a randomized controlled trial
IJM de Rooij1, IGL van de Port, M Punt, PJM Abbink-van Moorsel, M Kortsmit, RPA van Eijk, JMA Visser-Meily, JWG Meijer

"After stroke, people often experience difficulties with walking leading to restrictions in participation in daily life. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of virtual reality gait training (VRT) compared to non-virtual reality gait training (non-VRT) on participation in community-living people after stroke."

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Virtual Reality Rehabilitation in long COVID patients; a pilot effectiveness study
R.J. Achttien PT, PhD1, M.L.M. Smits MSc2, J.B. Staal PT, PhD1,3, T. Groenveld, H. van Goor, MD, PhD, FRCS2 and the VREHAB group

"Post-COVID-19 patients, including those not admitted to hospital, are expected to have high needs for physical, psychological, and cognitive rehabilitation (long COVID) [1]. Resources needed to provide rehabilitation treatment are expected to be inadequate [2].."

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PijnVRij: A qualitative study into the lived experiences of patients with non-specific chronic low-back pain using Virtual Reality
Merlijn Smits, Harry van Goor

"21,2% of the Dutch population is suffering from chronic low-back pain. Chronic pain often negatively affects quality of life, mobility, and activities of daily living of these patients. Current chronic pain treatment, mostly via NSAIDs, is often inadequate [1]."

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The Impact of Virtual Reality on Body Sway and Balance
G. Hakvoort1 , L. Bulle1 , M. Nijenhuis1 , D. Wentink , J. Kosse , S. Brink , E. Nibbering , C. Kniknie , M. Hettinga

"The introduction of consumer-grade virtual reality (VR) headsets has led to new and engaging methods
for physical rehabilitation. Not only does VR provide the means to bring everyday situations into the
rehabilitation therapy, and thereby help their transition into rehabilitation throughout everyday life
after therapy, it also allows patients to practise independent from time and place."

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Child- and task-specific influences on motor learning and transfer in a motorically-equivalent immersive, non-immersive and physical environment
Minxin Cheng, Danielle Levac

"Virtual reality (VR) is a popular pediatric rehabilitation intervention. However, much remains to be
understood about the impact of child-specific (e.g., motivation, engagement, and cognitive
workload) and task-specific (e.g. immersive vs non-immersive viewing medium) influences on motor
learning and transfer in VR."

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