The library contains publications providing information on recent and emerging virtual reality technologies and their application in rehabilitation. Details can be found on authors, research, technology, area of impact as well as location.

VR4REHAB is providing this library as a service for all stakeholders in rehabilitation to showcase past, current and future work with neither assessment of quality of content nor evaluation of claims made by the original authors.  Therefore, reference to any work or products in the library does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation by VR4REHAB.

A prospective, double-blind, pilot, randomized, controlled trial of an “embodied” virtual reality intervention for adults with low back pain
Eccleston, Christopher; Fisher, Emma; Liikkanen, Sammeli; Sarapohja, Toni; Stenfors, Carina; Jääskeläinen, Satu K.; Rice, Andrew S.C.; Mattila, Leenad; Blom, Taru; Bratty, J. Raymond

"Adults with chronic low back pain, disability, moderate-to-severe pain, and high fear of movement and reinjury were recruited into a trial of a novel, automated, digital therapeutics, virtual reality, psychological intervention for pain (DTxP). We conducted a 3-arm, prospective, double-blind, pilot, randomized, controlled trial comparing DTxP with a sham placebo comparator and an open-label standard care."

DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002617
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The Design and Development of an Embodied Semi-Autonomous Mentoring Intelligence (SAMI) for Use in Virtual Reality Interventions, Operationalized for the Self-Management of Chronic Pain
J. Bartlett, E. Fisher, S. Liikkanen, J. Turunen, M. Skog and C. Eccleston

"We present a new embodied Semi-Autonomous Mentoring Intelligence (SAMI) avatar used in an immersive virtual reality intervention for the self-management of chronic pain. We discuss the research findings that were taken into consideration and guided the design and development of SAMI, such methods to promote working alliance with non-human agents, optimal characteristics of non-human agents, and features of effective “automation."

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Exploring the Unprecedented Privacy Risks of the Metaverse
Vivek Nair, Gonzalo Munilla Garrido, Dawn Song

"Thirty study participants playtested an innocent-looking "escape room" game in virtual reality (VR). Behind the scenes, an adversarial program had accurately inferred over 25 personal data attributes, from anthropometrics like height and wingspan to demographics like age and gender, within just a few minutes of gameplay. As notoriously data-hungry companies become increasingly involved in VR development, this experimental scenario may soon represent a typical VR user experience. While virtual telepresence applications (and the so-called "metaverse") have recently received increased attention and investment from major tech firms, these environments remain relatively under-studied from a security and privacy standpoint. In this work, we illustrate how VR attackers can covertly ascertain dozens of personal data attributes from seemingly-anonymous users of popular metaverse applications like VRChat."

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Virtual Reality Tailored to the Needs of Post-ICU Patients: A Safety and Immersiveness Study in Healthy Volunteers
Vlake, Johan H. BSc; Wils, Evert-Jan MD, PhD; van Bommel, Jasper MD, PhD; Korevaar, Tim I. M. MD, PhD; Gommers, Diederik MD, PhD; van Genderen, Michel E. MD, PhD

"ICU treatments frequently result in long-term psychologic impairments, negatively affecting quality of life. An effective treatment strategy is still lacking. The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate the safety and immersiveness of a newly designed ICU-specific virtual reality module."

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Factors influencing the delivery of telerehabilitation for stroke: A systematic review
Aoife Stephenson, Sarah Howes, Paul J. Murphy, Judith E. Deutsch, Maria Stokes, Katy Pedlow, Suzanne M. McDonough

Despite the available evidence regarding effectiveness of stroke telerehabilitation, there has been little focus on factors influencing its delivery or translation from the research setting into practice.

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Virtual Reality in the Rehabilitation of Patients with Neurological Disorders
Antonios Kefaliakos, Ioannis Pliakos, Panagiotis Kiekkas, Martha Charalampidou, Marianna Diomidous

Neurological disorders affect the lifestyle and the living conditions of a patient. Virtual Reality is a technology that may be used to simulate various types of tasks in a computerized environment guiding the patient and help on rehabilitation

DOI: 10.3233/978-1-61499-664-4-45
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What is XR? Towards a Framework for Augmented and Virtual Reality
Philipp A. Rauschnabel, Reto Felix, Chris Hinsch, Hamza Shahab, Florian Alt

"Inspired by prior research and qualitative insights from XR professionals, we discuss the meaning and definitions of various terms and organize them in our proposed framework."

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Visually evoked pain and its extinction using virtual reality in a patient with complex regional pain syndrome type II
Daniel S Harvie, Tasha R Stanton, Hannah Kennedy and Michel W Coppieters

In this case report, we used virtual reality (VR) to explore pain evoked by only the appearance of being touched (rather than actually being touched) in a person with complex regional pain syndrome type II.

DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002605
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Book Review: Recent Advances in Technologies for Inclusive Well-Being: Virtual Patients, Gamification, and Simulation
Anthony Lewis Brooks, Sheryl Brahman, Bill Kapralos, Amy Nakajima, Jane Tyerman, Lakhmi C. Jain (Eds)

his 2021 Springer book is the third volume of a trilogy focused on Technologies for Inclusive Well-Being that includes a 2014 volume focused upon serious games, alternative realities, and play therapy, through to a 2017 volume focused on applied technologies ranging from worn to off-body sensing, virtual worlds, and games for serious applications.

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Impact of virtual embodiment and exercises on functional ability and range of motion in orthopedic rehabilitation
Marta Matamala-Gomez, Mel Slater and Maria V. Sanchez-Vives

Recent evidence supports the use of immersive virtual reality (immersive VR) as a means of applying visual feedback techniques in neurorehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the benefits of an embodiment-based immersive VR training program for orthopedic upper limb rehabilitation, with the aim of improving the motor functional ability of the arm and accelerating the rehabilitation process in patients with a conservatively managed distal radius fracture.

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Rehabilitation, the Great Absentee of Virtual Coaching in Medical Care: Scoping Review
Peppino Tropea, Hannes Schlieter, Irma Sterpi, Elda Judica, Kai Gand, Massimo Caprino, Inigo Gabilondo, Juan Carlos Gomez-Esteban, Stefan Busnatu, Crina Sinescu, Sofoklis Kyriazakos, Sadia Anwar and Massimo Corbo

This scoping review aimed at providing an overview of the applications of a virtual coach in the clinical field. In particular, the review focused on the papers that provide tangible information for coaching activities with an active implication for engaging and guiding patients who have an ongoing plan of care.

DOI: doi:10.2196/12805
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A Novel Virtual Coaching System Based on Personalized Clinical Pathways for Rehabilitation of Older Adults—Requirements and Implementation Plan of the vCare Project
Sofoklis Kyriazakos, Hannes Schlieter, Kai Gand, Massimo Caprino, Massimo Corbo, Peppino Tropea, Elda Judica3, Irma Sterpi3, Stefan Busnatu, Patrick Philipp, Jordi Rovira, Alvaro Martínez, Marc Lange, Inigo Gabilondo, Rocio Del Pino, Juan Carlos Gomez-Esteban, Lucia Pannese, Morten Bøttcher and Vibeke Lynggaard

Home-based rehabilitation after an acute episode or following an exacerbation of a chronic disease is often problematic with a clear lack of continuity of care between hospital and home care. Secondary prevention is an essential element of long-term rehabilitation where strategies oriented toward risk reduction, treatment adherence, and optimization of quality of life need to be applied

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Technically Representing Clinical Knowledge for Rehabilitation Care
Kai Gand, Lars Böcking, Karl Kreiner, Hannes Schlieter, Martin Burwitz, Carola Gißke, Patrick Philipp, Johannes Kropf

Providing a suitable rehabilitation after an acute episode or a chronic disease helps people to live independently and enhance their quality of life. However, the continuity of care is often interrupted in the transition from hospital to home.

DOI: 10.3233/SHTI210235
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Virtual Coaching for Rehabilitation: The Participatory Design Experience of the vCare Project
Agnese Seregni, Enrica Tricomi, Peppino Tropea, Rocio Del Pino, Juan Carlos Gómez-Esteban, Inigo Gabilondo María Díez-Cirarda, Hannes Schlieter, Kai Gand and Massimo Corbo

End-user involvement constitutes an essential goal during the development of innovative solution, not only for the evaluation, but also in codesign, following a user-centered strategy. Indeed, it is a great asset of research to base the work in a user-centered approach, because it allows to build a platform that will respond to the real needs of users.

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The Effect of Optic Flow Speed on Active Participation During Robot-Assisted Treadmill Walking in Healthy Adults
Emma De Keersmaecker, Nina Lefeber, Ben Serrien, Bart Jansen, Carlos Rodriguez-Guerrero, Nilofar Niazi, Eric Kerckhofs and Eva Swinnen

This study aimed to investigate: 1) the effect of optic flow speed manipulation on active participation during robot-assisted treadmill walking (RATW), 2) the influence of the type of virtual environment, and 3) the level of motion sickness and enjoyment. Twenty-eight healthy older adults were randomized in two groups: “stimulus rich” Park group (50% male, 61± 6 year) and “stimulus poor” Hallway group (43% male, 62± 5 year).

DOI: 10.1109/TNSRE.2019.2955804
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Virtual reality during gait training: does it improve gait function in persons with central nervous system movement disorders? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Emma De Keersmaecker, Nina Lefeber, Marion Geys, Elise Jespers, Eric Kerckhofs and Eva Swinnen

During gait training in persons with central nervous system (CNS) movement disorders, virtual reality (VR) can offer added value by providing task-specific gait training in more interactive and motivating environments.

DOI: 10.3233/NRE-182551
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Use of virtual reality in managing paediatric procedural pain and anxiety: An integrative literature review
Sofia Addab, Reggie Hamdy, Kelly Thorstad, Sylvie Le May and Argerie Tsimicalis

"This integrative review aimed to identify, analyse and synthesise studies investigating the clinical efficacy of virtual reality (VR) distraction for children undergoing varying painful and anxiety-inducing medical procedures across different hospital settings and to identify implications for research and clinical practice."

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Effectiveness of adding virtual reality to physiotherapeutic treatment in patients with total hip arthroplasty. A randomized controlled trial
Jonathan Zavala-González, Diego Martínez and Héctor Gutiérrez-Espinoza

To determine the clinical effectiveness of adding virtual reality via the Nintendo Wii console and its Wii Balance Board to physiotherapy treatment in patients with total hip arthroplasty.

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