The library contains publications providing information on recent and emerging virtual reality technologies and their application in rehabilitation. Details can be found on authors, research, technology, area of impact as well as location.

VR4REHAB is providing this library as a service for all stakeholders in rehabilitation to showcase past, current and future work with neither assessment of quality of content nor evaluation of claims made by the original authors.  Therefore, reference to any work or products in the library does not constitute an endorsement or recommendation by VR4REHAB.

An Innovative Patient-Centered Virtual Reality Intervention for Pediatric TBI Cognitive Rehabilitation: Preliminary Efficacy
Jiabin Shen
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Physiotherapist beliefs and perspectives on virtual reality–supported rehabilitation for the assessment and management of musculoskeletal shoulder pain: a focus group study protocol
Niamh Brady, Jeremy Lewis, Karen McCreesh, Beate Dejaco & Joseph G. McVeigh

Shoulder pain accounts for a large proportion of musculoskeletal disorders and years lived with disability. Musculoskeletal shoulder pain is challenging to manage and while research evidence suggests that exercise should be a cornerstone of shoulder pain rehabilitation, the exact type and dosage of exercise is unclear. Adherence is a barrier to successful outcomes with exercise-based management of musculoskeletal pain, especially for those with co-morbidities, high pain levels and reported boredom associated with competing prescribed exercise. Virtual reality (VR) may offer an effective platform for rehabilitation of musculoskeletal shoulder pain

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Virtual Rehabilitation of the Paretic Hand and Arm in Persons With Stroke: Translation From Laboratory to Rehabilitation Centers and the Patient's Home
Gerard Fluet, Qinyin Qiu, Jigna Patel, Ashley Mont, Amanda Cronce, Mathew Yarossi, Alma Merians and Sergei Adamovich

"The anatomical and physiological heterogeneity of strokes and persons with stroke, along with the complexity of normal upper extremity movement make the possibility that any single treatment approach will become the definitive solution for all persons with upper extremity hemiparesis due to stroke unlikely."

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Evaluation of a VR prototype for neuropsychological rehabilitation of attentional functions
Lukas Lorentz, Mariella Simone, Marcel Zimmermann, Bettina Studer, Boris Suchan, Anita Althausen, Jana Estocinova, Kristina Müller & Michael Lendt

The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and tolerability of the newly developed VR Traveller prototype for neurorehabilitation training.

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Virtual Reality and Physiotherapy in Post-Stroke Functional Re-Education of the Lower Extremity: A Controlled Clinical Trial on a New Approach
Carlos Luque-Moreno, Pawel Kiper, Ignacio Solís-Marcos, Michela Agostini, Andrea Polli, Andrea Turolla and Angel Oliva-Pascual-Vaca

Numerous Virtual Reality (VR) systems address post-stroke functional recovery of the lower extremity (LE), most of them with low early applicability due to the gait autonomy they require. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific VR treatment and its clinical effect on LE functionality, gait, balance, and trunk control post-stroke.

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Effects of Virtual Reality Intervention on Neural Plasticity in Stroke Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review
Jie Hao, Haoyu Xie, Kimberly Harp, MLS Zhen Chen, MD, PhD and Ka-Chun Siu, PhD

To systematically review and examine the current literature regarding the effects of virtual reality (VR)–based rehabilitation on neural plasticity changes in survivors of stroke.

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An 8-Week Self-Administered At-Home Behavioral Skills-Based Virtual Reality Program for Chronic Low Back Pain: Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial Conducted During COVID-19
Laura M Garcia, Brandon J Birckhead, Parthasarathy Krishnamurthy, Josh Sackman, Ian G Mackey, Robert G Louis, Vafi Salmasi, Todd Maddox and Beth D Darnall

We aimed to conduct a double-blind, parallel-arm, single-cohort, remote, randomized placebo-controlled trial for a self-administered behavioral skills-based VR program in community-based individuals with self-reported chronic low back pain during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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A Randomized Controlled Trial Assessing the Efficacy of a Virtual Reality Biofeedback Video Game: Anxiety Outcomes and Appraisal Processes
Joanneke Weerdmeester, Marieke M. J. W. van Rooij, Dominique F. Maciejewski, Rutger C. M. E. Engels, and Isabela Granic

"This study assessed the efficacy of a virtual reality biofeedback video game (DEEP) in reducing anxiety symptoms. In addition, changes in engagement and cognitive appraisals including self-efficacy, locus of control, and threat-challenge appraisals were measured and it was explored how these factors related to anxiety regulation"

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Exploring the effectiveness of immersive Virtual Reality interventions in the management of musculoskeletal pain: a state-of-the-art review
Niamh Brady, ,Joseph G. McVeigh, Karen McCreesh, Ebonie Rio, Thomas Dekkers & Jeremy S. Lewis

Virtual Reality (VR) is an immersive technology, which transports the user to a three-dimensional ‘virtual world’ and is increasingly used as an innovative treatment modality in various aspects of healthcare. The use of immersive VR in the management of musculoskeletal conditions is relatively new and research is required to demonstrate its effectiveness in this field.

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ProCibo: A Virtual Reality Environment for Functional Reach Training
G. Hakvoort , L. Bulle , H. Prins , J. Kosse , S. Brink , E. Nibbering , C. Kniknie , M. Hettinga

"From the moment we set our first steps we practise walking until it eventually becomessecond nature.
However, due to injury, illness, or disease, someone might lose control over this automated task. In
these cases, physical therapy is often used to help restore a patient’s use of muscles and train a new
automatic walking pattern. "

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TrunkyXL: Sixpack for everybody!
Carmen Ensink, Lise Wilders, Kim Vereijken, Desirée Struijk – Vlaswinkel, Fanny Schils, Gert-Jan Brok, Kiki Coppelmans, Colin Rosen, Noël Keijsers

"A significant proportion of stroke patients experience poor trunk control (1), which is highly associated with decreased gait ability and difficulty with activities of daily living (2). Moreover, impaired trunk stability and sitting balance affects the safety of performing daily life activities. Trunk stability is therefore an important goal in functional rehabilitation care (3)."

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Phantom Motor Execution: treating phantom limb pain with virtual and augmented reality
Els M. Keesom, Kajsa Lidstrom-Holmqvist, Liselotte Hermansson, Corry K van der Sluis

"Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a deteriorating condition that can greatly diminish quality of life. A novel treatment has been developed to relieve the PLP. The Phantom Motor Execution (PME) program uses augmented reality to treat PLP."

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Adaptation of a VR therapeutic game for spatial attention to a fMRI environment
Ferdinand Binkofski, André Schüppen

"The aim of our study is the implementation of the virtual reality (VR) therapeutic stimuli from VR-Traveller to a functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) environment with the goal to monitor the effects of therapy in the brains of young patients with cognitive deficits. VR-Traveller is a comprehensive VR therapy program focused on treatment of visual attention and of working memory."

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Virtual Reality Platform for Cognitive Neurorehabilitation: first use cases on Autism and Traumatic Brain Injuries
Agata M. Soccini , Simone A. G. Cuccurullo , Stefania Brighenti , Federica Cena

"In the current work, we present a VR platform for neuro-cognitive studies, using which research
teams and medical staff can implement specific applications for research and practice in several
different rehabilitation use cases."

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Virtual Reality for the Management of Chronic Pain – The VIPA Study
Jordan Tsigarides, Vanessa Grove, Jacqueline Chipping, Susan Miles, Nicholas Shenker, Saber Sami, Alexander Macgregor

"Chronic pain is debilitating, prevalent and one of the most prominent causes of disability worldwide. Current non-pharmacological treatments for pain conditions such as Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) are labour intensive to implement and not widely available, especially during the pandemic."

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VEE+T: Virtual Environment Eyes for Training
F. Cappilli, A.Venanzi

"The Digitalization is leading AECM (Architecture Engineering Construction and Manufacturing) sectors to interact more and more with tools that allow it to autonomously optimize the iterations and design choices: this is perfectly represented also in Training and Simulations sector."

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Motivation for Rehabilitation: User experience of virtual reality innovations for therapy for young people with brain injury
Dido Green, Shana Boltin, Alex Hutchon, Francesca Gowing, Betty Hutchon, Cherry Kilbride, Valentin Beauchamp, Laurent Grisoni

"Intervention programmes for children and young people (CYP) with motor disorders often require extensive repetition of exercises which some CYP find tedious or difficult to adhere to. This study investigated how provision of virtual interfacing access to commercially produced Virtual Reality (VR) games via affordable technologies can provide a motivating enviroment for the practice of therapeutic activities."

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Rehabilitation via home based gaming exercise for the upper-limb post stroke (RHOMBUS): results of an intervention feasibility trial
Cherry Kilbride, Alex Nowicky, Alyson Warland, Thomas Butcher, Meriel Norris, Guillem Buxarrais Singla, Daniel Scott, Karen Baker, Dimitris Athanasiou, Nana Anoyke, Jennifer Ryan, Elizabeth Cassidy

"Effective interventions to promote upper-limb recovery post-stroke are characterised by intensive and repetitive movements. It is reported that stroke survivors move their arm an average of 32 times per therapy session; this is insufficient to drive neuroplastic change."

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